Calcium (Ca) is one of the major secondary nutrients in the plant, so it is not a mobile element in the soil and plant. Therefore, the symptoms of calcium deficiency appear on young leaves and shoot tips. Calcium plays many physiological roles within the plant.
- Calcium has a major role in the formation of cell walls and hardness of plant tissues and increases tolerance of some bacterial and fungal diseases as well as increasing the storage ability of fruits, tubers, and bulbs.
- It has an essential role in pollination and fertilization which, has an effect on pollen tube growth inside the ovary as it reduces the rate of fruit drop and increases fruit set and yield.
- Reduces the toxicity of certain inorganic nutrients such as sodium and magnesium that can accumulate in toxic quantities.
- It plays an important role in the tolerance of adverse weather conditions such as high temperature and frost, as well as sudden exposure to drought or shortage of water in the soil.
- It is very important in cell division and cellular elongation, it is necessary for the continued growth of Meristem tips growth that, responsible for new growths.
- An essential element in the resistance of physiological diseases to fruits.
- Important and necessary in root growth and distributions as well as vegetative growth.
- It has an important role in promoting rhizobium that, fixing nitrogen in legumes plants.