Tomato is the most widely cultivated crop in the world and considered a very important vegetable crop regarding both income and nutrition. Tomato is the second most important vegetable crop next to potato. Tomato is a rapidly growing crop with a growing period of 90 to 150 days and can be grown on a wide range of soils but a well-drained, light loam soil with a pH of 5 to 7 is preferred. The crop is very sensitive to frost.

The Role Of Elements

Tomato crop is an important economic crop, which depletes large quantities of potassium, especially during the stages of growth and development of fruits, potassium is one of the most important nutrient in production and quality of tomato fruits because of its direct impact on: -

  • Obtain seedlings with strong roots and vegetative growth for open filed cultivation.
  • Has an important role in increasing vegetative and root growth.
  • Important in order to increase production and improve quality specifications of fruits.
  • Increases coloring and hardness of fruits.
  • Increases flowering, fruit set and reduce fruit drop.
  • enhances efficiency of plant absorption of water and nutrients.
  • Increased resistance of tomato plants to fungal and insect diseases
  • improves plant resistance to environmental stress factors (high temperature - frost - drought - salinity).

The effect of phosphorus on the yield of tomato crop because phosphorus play physiological roles as:  -

  • Activates the growth and root distributions.
  • Has a vital role in improving vegetative growth.
  • Helps seed germination by nursery and the development and growth of seedling.
  • Improves, boosts flowering and increase the rate of pollination and fertilization.
  • Improves the growth and roots distributions, especially in the beginning of seedlings in the open filed.
  • Giving fruits of high quality good export specifications.

Calcium plays many physiological roles in the tomato crop

  • Stimulates meristem tissue in shoot tips.
  • Stimulate root and vegetative growth.
  • Activate flowering, pollination and fertilization.
  • Increases fruit set percentage and reduces the fruit drop.
  • Increases plant resistance to some physiological disorder such as blossom end rot.
  • Raise plant resistance to fungal and bacterial diseases.
  • Increasing the storage ability of fruits.

Deficiency Symptoms


Potassium deficiency symptoms on tomato can be appeared as slow in growth and that before visible symptoms occurred. symptoms appear on the edges of the leaves and from bottom to top as a yellow or bronzes spots in addition , old lower leafelets below the leaves may bend as shown symptoms of shortage in: -

  • Low T.S.S, softness of fruits and low vitamin C content.
  • Reduced yield and fruit quality as well as weight, size and coloring.
  • Exposure of fruits to loss and damage during transportation and handling.
  • Plants become less resistant to unfavorable environmental conditions.
  • Reduces fruit set, productivity and increases fruit drop.


The most important of phosphorus deficiency symptoms element on tomatoes turn the leaves to bluish green and then red or purple for the accumulation of sugar in the leaves. The symptoms of deficiency appear in: -

  • Low vegetative and root growth and exposed plants to fungal diseases.
  • In the case of severe shortage reduce the size of leaves and the surface color of the top of the leaves is bluish green and the color of the bottom surface of the paper including veins of violet color as a result of the accumulation of anthocyanin.
  • Low flowering percentage, fruit set and low yield.
  • Low quality of fruits.


Symptoms of deficiency appear as:

  • Blossom end rot.
  • Failure of pollination and fertilization.
  • Poor yield and quality marketable fruits.
  • Dryness shoot tips of branches and roots.
  • Dry the edges of young leaves after they twist and then brittle.
  • Lack of efficiency work of plant hormones.